Start of centred table

Template:Template doc page transcluded

S-Start is the initial component in a template series for succession boxes. It replaces the previous formats for succession tables but still allows for most of their use indirectly. In the new format, every succession box begins with s-start, and thus it is an essential component of the new system. If anyone finds a succession template not in this standard, contact KuatofKDY.

Templates discussed on this page

This template is to be used in coordination with the following:

The functions and use of each one will be analysed in the following sections.

Instructions for use

There are many types of succession boxes (from now on referred to in this text as Wikitables or just tables), as the combinations of the various templates previously mentioned are virtually endless. We will begin by demonstrating the use of simple tables, and proceed with the analysis of more complex tables of many lines and multiple titles.

Simple tables

For the purposes of this tutorial, we will call simple the tables that follow the format "predecessor, title, successor", and essentially consist of one line. As they are the easiest and most fundamental, we will begin with them.

Basic format: s-start, s-bef, s-ttl, s-aft, end

The very purpose of a succession box is to show the place of the person in question (the one whose article the box is in) in a succession of people. Because of this, most tables include three people, namely the person in question, their predecessor, and their successor.

The quintessential Wikitable consists of three boxes, which go from left to right in the same order that the three persons' terms succeeded each other: the left one names the predecessor, the middle one names the title of the person in question and the years that mark their term in an office (the person's name is already mentioned in the article's name and so is not repeated here), and the right one names the successor.

Simply enough, the creation of a table follows the same order. First comes the predecessor (template s-bef), the title and years follow (template s-ttl), and then comes the successor (template s-aft). It should not be forgotten, of course, that any succession box opens with the s-start template, and ends with the end template. Each command should be given its own line.

Have a look at this diagram.

Enter the start field so the program recognizes the table:
Enter the name of the predecessor:
{{s-bef|before=[[Enter Predecessor here]]}}
Enter the title of the person on whose page you are working:
{{s-ttl|title=[[Enter Title here]]
Also, enter the years during which they held that title:
|years=[[Enter start date here]] — [[Enter end date here]]}}
Enter the name of the successor:
{{s-aft|after=[[Enter Successor here]]}}
Once everything is done, type:

This is an example of the technique. Writing…

{{s-ttl|title=King of Europe
|years=[[1492]] — [[1528]]}}

…will produce this:

Template:S-start |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Martin |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|King of Europe
14921528 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
Robert |- |}

Note the absence of double square brackets in the names of the predecessor and the successor and in the name of the title in this example; their presence allows for the names in the table to link to their respective articles, and were omitted here because these specific names do not correspond to articles in Wikipedia. Although it is strongly suggested that you do link the names in the tables even if they do not have their own article for the time being (resulting in a red link), there can be exceptions.

It is encouraged that you include the title-holder's date whenever possible; if a date is dubious or disputed, use the s-cite to include references that will back up that date (see below).

Predecessors and successors

Titles and offices do not last forever; they have to begin somewhere, and sooner or later they end. As a result, there is not always a predecessor or a successor, as a person might be the first or the last holder of an office. In addition, various events might occur, disturbing the smooth succession in an office and causing vacancies. Because of this, the previously described templates can be substituted to allow for special cases.


Titles can be created along with the birth of new states or during periods of governmental reform. The mention of a title creation is necessary when the article containing the Wikitable is about the first holder of an office, in which case there is no predecessor and the template s-new is used instead of the usual s-bef.

There is the option of entering the reason behind the title's creation, using a short sentence. If you don't want to include the reason, write only {{s-new}} instead of the full version of the following example.

Template:s-new (with others)

{{s-new|reason=Enter reason for title}}
{{s-ttl|title=Title of person|years=Insert years here}}
{{s-aft|after=Insert successor here}}

Which looks like:

Template:S-start Template:S-new |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|King of Africa
182030 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
Amal |- |}


Many titles have expired, become extinct, or otherwise fallen into disuse. The last holders of these titles had no successors, and in such cases the template s-non is used. A short description of the reason for the discontinuation of the title's use is necessary (e.g. Extinct, Merged into crown, etc.).

The same template can be used for a title that needs description but does not fall under the other predecessor or successor forms.

This form requires |- if it is used in a complex table (see relevant section):

Template:s-non (with others)

{{s-bef|before=Insert predecessor here}}
{{s-ttl|title=Title of person|years=Insert years here}}
{{s-non|reason=Give brief reason why no more title}}

Which looks like:

Template:S-start |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Chinggis |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|King of Asia
12631320 Template:S-non |}


Another occasion where there might be no successor to a title, is when the person in question is the current occupant of said office or position. To create a table for someone who is the incumbent (current title holder), use the template s-inc.

Note that you must enter the word "present" instead of an end date, as the person in question is still the holder of the title. The inclusion of an heir is optional.

Template:s-inc (with others)

{{s-bef|before=Insert predecessor here}}
{{s-ttl|title=Title of person|years=Insert start year — present}}
{{s-inc|heir=Designated heir}}

Which looks like:

Template:S-start |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
George |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|King of North America
2001 — present Template:S-inc |}


Thrones and other titles can be usurped by those other than the rightful holder. In such cases, the holder of the title is not the rightful successor and may be recognised as such or not. They still undeniably exercise the powers of the title (de facto) and are part of the succession chain.

There are four versions of the s-urp template: one to show that the subject of the succession box has usurped a title from another person (from), one to show that another person has usurped the subject's title (by), one to show that the subject has reclaimed a title from an usurper (refrom) and one to show that a title was reclaimed from the subject by someone else (reby).

Template:s-urp (with others)

Example 1:

{{s-urp|from=Enter person from whom title was usurped}}
{{s-ttl|title=Title of person|years=Insert years here}}
{{s-urp|reby=Enter person who reclaimed title}}

Which looks like:

Template:S-start Template:S-urp |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|King of the World
190105 Template:S-urp |}

Example 2:

{{s-urp|refrom=Enter person from whom title was reclaimed}}
{{s-ttl|title=Title of person|years=Insert years here}}
{{s-urp|by=Enter person who usurped title}}

Which looks like:

Template:S-start Template:S-urp |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|King of the World
190512 Template:S-urp |}


Vacant titles are not currently held by anyone. For monarchs, such periods are often known as interregna, though vacancies can occur to any office. In case of a vacancy, the s-vac template is used. It is a rather flexible template, as this table cell can go before or after the title of the individual and is meant to designate if they have no predecessor and/or successor, although the title is not extinct.

If the last or next title holder are known, that information can be filled into the form.

Template:s-vac (with others)

To create a table that begins with a vacant title, use this:

{{s-vac|last=Last person to hold title}}
{{s-ttl|title=Title of person|years=Insert years here}}
{{s-aft|after=Insert successor here}}

Which looks like:

Template:S-start Template:S-vac |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|King of Madagascar
162041 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
Windig |- |}

To create a table that ends with a vacant title, use this:

{{s-bef|before=Insert predecessor here}}
{{s-ttl|title=Title of person|years=Insert years here}}
{{s-vac|next=Next person to hold title}}

Which looks like:

Template:S-start |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Naga |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Dictator of Japan
191234 Template:S-vac |}

In multiple row tables (see relevant section) it is necessary to add |- after a line that ends with this template, so that the computer can recognise the new row (unless the line that ends with s-vac is the last one in the Wikitable).

Titles and offices

The s-bef and s-aft templates are not the only ones to be substituted in occasions. There are three alternatives to the simple s-ttl template, for the event when a person does not hold a title in the usual way.


Often in history, some offices were held by more than one person at a time. The most common example of this is a regency, when a monarch rules with the aid of another person, like the joint occupation of the throne of England by Mary II and her husband, William III, from their accession in 1989 until her death in 1694. The standard s-ttl template is used in this case, and the regents are entered in the way demonstrated below.

The inclusion of the regents is always optional, as are the dates of their reign and those of the title holder's reign. This template currently supports up to three regents, as there can be more than one regent at a time, or a regent may be succeeded by another. In order to allow the reader make sense from complex regencies, inclusion of dates is at least preferred in such cases.

Template:s-ttl with regents parameters (with other templates)

{{s-bef|before=Insert predecessor here}}
{{s-ttl|title=Title of person|years=Insert years here ::<nowiki>|regent1=Title of regent|years1=Insert years here}}
|regent2=Title of regent|years2=Insert years here}}
|regent3=Title of regent|years3=Insert years here}}
{{s-aft|after=Insert successor here}}

Which looks like:

Template:S-start |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Philip |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Queen of Antarctica
with Philip (1889-93)
Anthony (1893-95)
Elizabeth (1895-97) |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
Margaret |- |}


Members of the House of Lords, the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, have never been elected; instead, they were hereditary for the greater part of the House's existence, and most of them are nowadays appointed. Although seats in the Lords cannot be tracked by succession boxes, the titles that used to grant them were, and so a label may be added to succession boxes of peers that were members of the House of Lords. This template is optional and works more or less like the above described one for regents.

Template:s-ttl with the lords parameter (with other templates)

{{s-bef|before=Insert predecessor here}}
{{s-ttl|title=Title of person|years=Insert years here|lords=Insert years in Lords here}}
{{s-aft|after=Insert successor here}}

Which looks like:

Template:S-start |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Nicholas |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Duke of the Celtic Sea
Member of the House of Lords
(1720 — 1741)
|width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
David |- |}

It is suggested that you should not link the years in the label, to avoid cluttering the succession box.


There are two categories of people who have regnal titles but not the power connected to them: titular rulers and pretenders.

Titular rulers are people who legitimately deserve a title yet are somehow incapable of securing it, as in the case of Louis XVII of France, heir to the throne during the early years of the French Revolution. Titular rulers generally mean that their title will again be inherited by someone with power and remains only temporarily suspended. There is generally only one titular claimant to a title.

Pretenders are people who may or may not have a rightful claim to a title, but regardless do not possess any legitimate authority. Perhaps the most famous pretenders were Prince James Francis Edward Stuart and his son, Bonnie Prince Charles, who were respectively known to the Jacobites as James III and VIII and Charles III but nicknamed by others the Old Pretender and the Young Pretender. While James Stuart was the legitimate heir to his father, the Glorious Revolution irrevocably overruled that power in favour of his half-sister. Therefore, he lost his legitimacy to govern but still claimed his hereditary titles, as did his son. Pretenders are not always successive, as titular leaders generally are, and there can be multiple pretenders at the same time (as in France's Legitimists and Orleanists).

In cases of titular rulers or pretenders, use the s-tul template. It is possible to include a reason for the inability of the title-holder to exercise their power, but this is something optional. Note that a title of a titular ruler should go under the same header as of all the other holders of that title (usually, but not always, s-reg|), while any titles held in pretence should go under the appropriate header (s-pre).

Template:s-tul (with others)

{{s-bef|before=Insert predecessor here}}
{{s-tul|title=Title|years=Years claimed|reason=Reason why titular/pretender}}
{{s-aft|after=Insert successor here}}

Which looks like:

Template:S-start |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Andrew Template:S-tul |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
Christian |- |}

Optional s-related templates

In addition to the three basic templates (s-bef, s-ttl, and s-aft) and their substitutes, there are four kinds of templates that may be completely omitted from a Wikitable depending on the circumstances. These include templates s-hou, s-fam, and s-cite, and an assortment of header templates.


This template is generally for use with monarchs or other rulers. It is placed at the top of a succession list, directly beneath the s-start, and establishes which royal house a person belongs to, giving their birth and death dates. If you do not know the day and month, leave a | and fill out the rest (leaving the space for the unknown date blank). For unknown birth or death dates, type Unknown; for living people, type Living. If there is such information available, you may also include the cadet branch information for the royal house. For more questions concerning this topic, see Cadet branch.

Template:s-hou (with others)

{{s-hou|Enter name of house here|Day and month of birth|Year of birth|Day and month of death|Year of death|Parent house}}
{{s-bef|before=[[Insert predecessor here]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=[[Enter title here]]
|years=[[Enter start date here]] — [[Enter end date here]]}}
{{s-aft|after=[[Insert successor here]]}}

Which will look something like this:

Template:S-start Template:S-hou |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Albert |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|King of Greenland
197287 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
Francois |- |}

In case you do not want to include any birth and death date information, you can use an alternate table produced by the template s-hno which will only ask for the house and the optional cadet branch information.


Sometimes there are no dates available for an individual. To allow for this issue, a secondary template, Template:s-hno, exists which is identical to the above minus the dates. If you do not know any dates for an individual, use this template. The cadet branch option is still available.

The above example with s-hno instead of s-hou is as follows:

Template:S-start Template:S-hno |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Albert |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|King of Greenland
197287 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
Francois |- |}


The question of succession often comes up in succession lists, especially in those of royal families. To trace that, template s-fam allows for a three-generation family tree to be added to any succession box, placing it after all the titles listed. In the third generation (the individual's grandparents), there is a second option to include the family or royal house (if any) for each individual. Wikilinks are appreciated on all family members and houses if available. All family trees must be sourced via s-cite (see below).

To add a family tree, type:
|F=Type Father's name
|FF=Type Father's Father's name
|FFH=Type Father's Father's house
|FM=Type Father's Mother's name
|FMH=Type Father's Mother's house
|M=Type Mother's name
|MF=Type Mother's Father's name
|MFH=Type Mother's Father's house
|MM=Type Mother's Mother's name
|MMH=Type Mother's Mother's house

It will look like this when completed:
Template:Start Template:S-fam |}


Template s-cite is for the purpose of sourcing a succession table. Considering the effort put by Wikipedia to qualify all articles on the site, this template should be used in all succession boxes whenever possible. It is designed to host individual references based on whatever medium preferred, except, of course, other Wikipedia article links; Wikipedia should not be used to verify itself. To use:

After completing a succession box, instead of end, type the following:

{{s-cite|Write out source 1 here|Write out source 2 here|Write out source 3 here}}

After adding, you do not need to add template end to close the succession box, as that is included in this template.

It will result in this added to the bottom of any succession box:

Template:Start Template:S-cite


There are various headers that can be placed in Wikitables to sort the various titles into categories. Although they are usually used in multiple row tables in order to distinguish the various titles and lessen the feeling of confusion created to the reader by a large table, they might be used for plain, one-row tables as well (especially in succession boxes for regnal titles, titles of nobility, and parliamentary seats).

Some of these headers can be further specialised with the use of parameters (e.g. s-par|us-lwr produces "United States House of Representatives", while s-par|eu produces "European Parliament"). Further information about the use of headers and the categorisation of titles in general can be found in the /Guidelines subpage of WikiProject Succession Box Standardization.

The headers are:

  • {{s-awards}} — Awards (Prestigious regular awards like Academy Awards etc.)
  • {{s-bus}} — Business positions (CEOs of large corporations etc.)
  • {{s-civ|pol}} — Police appointments, like Commissioners etc. (this is an example; the template is used for civic offices in general and is specialised with parameters)
  • {{s-dip}} — Diplomatic posts (Ambassadors etc.)
  • {{s-edu}} — Cultural, educational, and academic offices (Senior positions in major institutions and organisations)
  • {{s-gov}} — Government offices (Appointed governors, civil servants etc.)
  • {{s-herald}} — Heraldic offices (Kings of Arms, Heralds etc.)
  • {{s-hon}} — Honorary offices (This is a vague description and should be used with caution)
  • {{s-legal}} — Legal offices (Solicitors general, district attorneys etc.)
  • {{s-media}} — Media offices (Important positions in large newspapers, TV channels etc.)
  • {{s-mil}} — Military offices (Chiefs of Staff, Commanders-in-Chief etc.) Used for army, navy and air force appointments.
  • {{s-off}} — Political offices
  • {{s-par|uk}} — Parliament of the United Kingdom (Members of the House of Commons only. The s-par applies generally to parliaments and is specialised with parameters)
  • {{s-ppo}} — Party political offices (Party leaders etc.)
  • {{s-pre}} — Titles in pretence (Includes all titles held in pretence)
  • {{s-prec|}} — Order of precedence (Can be further specialised)
  • {{s-record}} — Records holders
  • {{s-reg|}} — Regnal titles (Can be further specialised for titles of nobility)
  • {{s-rel|ca}} — Religious posts in various religions (This is an example; the template is used with parameters)
  • {{s-roy}} — Various titles within royal families (Can be further specialised for different royal families)
  • {{s-sports}} — Sporting positions (Champions, sport award winners etc.)
  • {{s-other}} — Other offices (Not belonging to any other category)

Here are examples for each of the above (in order): Template:Start Template:S-awards Template:S-bus Template:S-civ Template:S-dip Template:S-edu Template:S-gov Template:S-herald Template:S-hon Template:S-legal Template:S-media Template:S-mil Template:S-off Template:S-par Template:S-ppo Template:S-pre Template:S-prec Template:S-record Template:S-reg Template:S-rel Template:S-roy Template:S-sports Template:S-other |}

Complex tables

Many people, like monarchs and Prime Ministers, active businesspeople, prominent scientists and talented athletes have held more than one offices and/or titles in their life. As it would be unwieldy to create separate tables for all those titles, we include all of them in one table. Thus, each article has one table at the bottom, which is easier to manage and more aesthetically pleasing.

Complex tables can be sorted into two groups. The first group contains tables that consist of the plain tables examined in the previous section. The second group contains more advanced tables with a more complicated structure. For the purposes of this tutorial, the tables of the first group will be called multiple row tables and the ones of the second group will be termed advanced tables.

Multiple row tables

As has been mentioned, Wikitables that consist of many separate lines are made up of the previous section's simple tables, and thus their creation follows more or less the same rules; the only difference is that special care should be given to the placement and relative order of said simple tables.

Generally, in tables with many rows, it is necessary to place |- between every row on the list. However, this text is already imbedded into most of the templates, so it is no longer necessary to add it to multiple row tables. The sole exception is the template s-vac: if a line ends with this template, you need to place this character or the computer will not recognize a new row.

An example of the way multiple row tables work is this:

{{s-ttl|title=Emperor of Oceania
|years=[[1989]] — [[2001]]}}
{{s-new|reason=Unification of South America}}
{{s-ttl|title=King of South America|years=[[1985]] — [[1993|93]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=President of Scandinavia|years=[[1982]] — [[1992|92]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=Prime Minister of Sub-Saharan Africa|years=[[2001]] — present}}

Which will look something like this:

Template:S-start Template:S-reg |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Michael |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Emperor of Oceania
19892001 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
Timothy |- Template:S-new |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|King of South America
198593 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
Fernando |- Template:S-off |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Olaf |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|President of Scandinavia
198292 Template:S-vac |- |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Marisa |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Prime Minister of Sub-Saharan Africa
2001 — present Template:S-inc |}

Advanced tables

Sometimes, a person might inherit more than one titles from a single individual, and/or pass multiple titles on to one person. The several separate crowns of the Commonwealth Realms, held by the same Queen, are one good example (see Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom). It is also possible that someone might take over an office from two different people who had held it jointly until then.

For these, and other scenarios, it is possible to create Wikitables that can show clearly those connections by making use of the advanced features of the new succession box model. The system for the advanced tables is a little different from the simple forms demonstrated in the previous sections, and it relies heavily on the |- character, as well as on the correct counting of the rows.

Basically, the format is the following: if a box is taking up more than one rows of the table, it can be specified how many rows exactly that will be by creating a row marker in the field immediately following the s-… field. That can be done by typing:

{{s-...|row=Insert number of rows here|...}}

The number corresponds to the number of rows this name or title overlaps in regard to the other rows. Lists of title-holders are usually in order of the granting of the title, beginning with the oldest titles held. All successive titles should be noted, though titles tied together permanently can be listed in the same field.

An example of the way advanced tables work is this:

{{s-ttl|rows=2|title=President of the Balkans
|years=[[2003]] — present}}
{{s-ttl|title=King of Southeast Asia|years=[[1982]] — [[1992|92]]}}
{{s-ttl|title=King of New Zealand|years=[[1990]] — [[1997|97]]}}
{{s-non|reason=New Zealand declared republic}}

Which will look something like this:

Template:S-start |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Nicholas |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="2"|President of the Balkans
2003 — present Template:S-inc |- |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Mary |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="2"|Preceded by
Richard |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|King of Southeast Asia
198292 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
William |- |- |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|King of New Zealand
199097 Template:S-non |}

Complete example

Using the rows feature of the templates, very advanced tables can be created to help in situations with people who hold many posts, especially British Prime Ministers. The following is a hypothetical chart with at least one use of all the forms above:

Template:S-start Template:S-hou Template:S-reg Template:S-new |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Queen of India
with Michael (197275) |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"| Succeeded by
Arnold |- |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="3"|Preceded by
Elizabeth |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Lady Supreme of Oceana
197583 Template:S-vac |- |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Empress of Arabia
197593 Template:S-non |- |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Grand Duchess of Europa
197599 |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="2"| Succeeded by
Felicia |- Template:S-vac |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Chief Sultana of Africa
199399 |- Template:S-new |width="40%" style="text-align: center;" rowspan="1"|Great Khanna of Asia
1993 — present Template:S-inc |- |- style="text-align:center;" |width="30%" align="center" rowspan="1"|Preceded by
Diane Template:S-tul Template:S-fam Template:S-citear:قالب:بداية صندوقsl:Predloga:S-začetek

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