Joanne Rowling, CH, OBE, FRSL, FRCPE (/ˈroʊlɪŋ/ "rolling"; born 31 July 1965), writing under the pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist, screenwriter, and producer who is best known for writing the Harry Potter fantasy series. The books have won multiple awards and sold more than 400 million copies, becoming the best-selling book series in history. They have also been the basis for a film series, over which Rowling had overall approval on the scripts and was a producer on the final films in the series.
Born in Yate, Gloucestershire, England, Rowling was working as a researcher and bilingual secretary for Amnesty International when she conceived the Harry Potter series while on a delayed train from Manchester to London in 1990. The seven-year period that followed saw her mother's death, the birth of her first child, divorce from her first husband, and relative poverty until the first novel in the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, was published in 1997. After that, there were six sequels, of which the last, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, was released in 2007. Since then, Rowling has written four books for adult readers: The Casual Vacancy (2012) and—under the pseudonym Robert Galbraith—the crime fiction novels The Cuckoo's Calling (2013), The Silkworm (2014), and Career of Evil (2015).
Rowling has lived a "rags to riches" life story, in which she progressed from living on state benefits to being the world's first billionaire author. However, she lost her billionaire status from giving away much of her earnings to charity. Even though she is no longer a billionaire, she is still one of the wealthiest people in the world. She is the United Kingdom's best-selling living author, with sales of over £238M. The 2016 Sunday Times Rich List estimated Rowling's fortune at £600 million, ranking her as the joint 197th richest person in the UK. Time magazine named her as a runner-up for its 2007 Person of the Year, noting the social, moral, and political inspiration she has given her fans. In October 2010, Rowling was named the "Most Influential Woman in Britain" by leading magazine editors. She has supported charities including Comic Relief, One Parent Families, Multiple Sclerosis Society of Great Britain, and launched her own charity: Lumos.