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Batman: The Animated Series is an American animated television series based on the DC Comics superhero Batman. It was developed by Bruce Timm and Eric Radomski. Produced by Warner Bros. Animation, it originally aired on Fox Kids from September 5, 1992, to September 15, 1995, with a total of 86 episodes. During its second season, the series was given the on-screen title The Adventures of Batman & Robin.

The series was praised for its thematic complexity, darker tone, artistic quality, film noir aesthetics, and modernization of its title character's crime-fighting origins. IGN listed The Animated Series as the best adaptation of Batman anywhere outside of comics, the best comic book cartoon of all time and the second best animated series of all time (after The Simpsons). Wizard magazine also ranked it #2 of the greatest animated television shows of all time (again after The Simpsons). TV Guide ranked it the seventh Greatest Cartoon of All Time. The widespread acclaim led the series to win four Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Animated Program.

The series was also the first in the continuity of the shared DC animated universe, spawning further animated TV series, comic books and video games with most of the same creative talent. Its ratings success and critical acclaim led the series to spawn two feature films: Batman: Mask of the Phantasm (released to theaters in 1993) and Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero (a direct-to-video release in 1998).

Overview

The series took influence from Tim Burton's live-action films, Batman (1989) and Batman Returns (1992), and the acclaimed Superman theatrical cartoons produced by Fleischer Studios in the early 1940s. In designing the series, Bruce Timm and Eric Radomski emulated the Burton films' "otherworldly timelessness", incorporating period features such as black-and-white title cards, police airships and a "vintage" color scheme with film noir flourishes.

The visual style of the series was based on the artwork of Radomski, and the gothic look of Gotham City was derived from his initial designs. In addition, Radomski issued a standing order to the animation department that all backgrounds be painted using light colors on black paper (as opposed to the industry standard of dark colors on white paper). The distinctive visual combination of "noir" imagery and Art Deco design was dubbed "Dark Deco" by the producers.

The series initially took a variation of music written by Danny Elfman for the Burton films as its theme; later episodes of the series used a new theme with a similar style by Shirley Walker, an occasional collaborator of Elfman. The score of the series was influenced by Elfman's work on the Burton films, as well as music of 1940s film noir.

The series is more adult-oriented than many of the previous superhero cartoons, while still being considered kid-friendly appropriate for younger audiences. It depicts outright physical violence against antagonists, including realistic firearms (though only one character, Commissioner Gordon, was ever depicted as having been shot, in the episode "I Am the Night"). First-time producers Timm and Radomski reportedly encountered resistance from studio executives, but the success of Burton's first film allowed the embryonic series to survive long enough to produce a pilot episode, "On Leather Wings", which, according to Timm, "got a lot of people off our backs". During the series' production, producer Alan Burnett wrote an episode without dialogue entitled "Silent Night" to explore more of Batman's sexual life, but this was never produced. Burnett also intended to make an episode featuring a female vampire that would bite Batman to suck his blood, but plans never materialized.

The series is also notable for its supporting cast. Numerous known actors provided voices for a variety of recognizable villains. Most notable was Mark Hamill, previously famous for his role as Luke Skywalker in the original Star Wars trilogy, whose prominence as a voice actor was heightened through his "cheerfully deranged" portrayal of the Joker. The role was originally given to Tim Curry, but he developed bronchitis during the initial recording sessions. John Glover, who later voiced the Riddler, also auditioned for the Joker role. Hamill, who found himself to be the biggest fan of the Batman comics among the cast, credited the laughs he had honed on stage in Amadeus with landing him the role. The recording sessions, under the supervision of voice director Andrea Romano, were recorded with the actors together in one studio instead of taking separate recordings, as is typical. This method would later be employed for all subsequent series in the DC Animated Universe. Al Pacino was considered to voice Two-Face in the series, but he declined the offer; Richard Moll was instead cast in the role. Other actors included Ron Perlman as Clayface, Roddy McDowall as the Mad Hatter, David Warner as Ra's al Ghul, Michael York as Count Vertigo, Kate Mulgrew as Red Claw, George Murdock as Boss Biggis, Ed Asner as Roland Daggett and George Dzundza as the Ventriloquist.

One of the series' best-known inventions is the Joker's assistant, Harley Quinn, who became so popular that DC Comics later added her to mainstream comic book continuity. The Penguin underwent change for the series; his appearance was remodeled after the version seen in Batman Returns, which was in production simultaneously with the series' first season. New life was also given to lesser-known characters for the series, such as the Clock King. In addition, dramatic changes were made to other villains such as Clayface and Mr. Freeze, the latter of whom was changed from a gimmicky mad scientist to a tragic figure whose "frigid exterior [hid] a doomed love and vindictive fury".

Characters

The Joker's accomplice Harley Quinn, Gotham City police detective Renee Montoya, the vigilante Lock-Up, former actor Simon Trent, brainwashed comedian-turned-supervillain Condiment King, and ninja Kyodai Ken are original creations who became characters in the comics. Older villains that were lesser known from the comics, such as Count Vertigo, the Mirror Man and the Clock King, were modified for the series in both appearance and personality. Other original antagonists were created, such as Roland Daggett, Red Claw, Lloyd Ventrix, the Sewer King, Boss Biggis, Grant Walker, H.A.R.D.A.C., and Emile Dorian, but to little acclaim, and did not make any appearances outside the series, though Daggett was re-imagined as businessman John Daggett for The Dark Knight Rises.

Aside from creating characters that crossed over into the main line of DC Comics, several of the series' reinterpretations were carried over as well. Mr. Freeze was revised in the comics to emulate the series' tragic story, the success of which actually compelled DC to bring the character back after "killing" him off some years earlier. Clayface was revised to be much more similar in appearance to his animated counterpart; and Two-Face's double-sided, black-and-white suit has become a common appearance for the character.

Bruce Wayne / Batman

Batman as seen in the original opening theme sequence of the series.

At the age of eight, Bruce Wayne, the son of billionaire philanthropists, witnessed the murder of his parents, Thomas and Martha, during a mugging on the street. The event left him traumatized and mentally scarred for the rest of his life. This left Bruce to be cared for by his family's butler, Alfred Pennyworth. Over the years, Bruce slowly turned the pain and trauma he sustained into a burning fuel for a lifelong obsession, as he underwent rigorous training in mental and physical conditioning, the martial arts, criminology, sciences, manhunting, forensics, detective work, interrogation methods and intimidation, for the next years of his life. Having observed the rampant crime and corruption across Gotham City, he chose to deal with the crime-wave in Gotham in his own way, by using his years of training and swore an oath to dedicate his entire life to fighting crime, in a bid to avenge the murder of his parents and to use his pain and suffering to drive him to do good, while being guided by his self-enforced moral code to never kill and to refrain from using firearms. Inspired by the presence of bats, his childhood fear, which used to be present around his home, Bruce chose to undertake the alias of The Batman, a feared, near-mythical and bat-masked vigilante.

One of the most notable changes made in The Animated Series is the treatment of Batman's alter ego, Bruce Wayne. In nearly all other media, including the comics, television shows and films, Bruce deliberately plays up his image as a vacuous, self-absorbed and not-too-bright billionaire playboy.[1] In The Animated Series, his character is assertive, outwardly intelligent, and actively involved in the management of Wayne Enterprises, without jeopardizing his secret identity. For example: in the episode "Eternal Youth", Bruce is shown angrily ordering one of his directors to cancel a deal with a timber company in the Amazon rainforest that had been made behind his back, threatening him with termination upon failure to comply.

Kevin Conroy used different voices to distinguish between his portrayal of Bruce Wayne and Batman, a tactic used previously by Michael Keaton in Tim Burton's live-action films.[2] Conroy based his dual-voice performance on the 1934 film adaptation of The Scarlet Pimpernel.[3]

Dick Grayson / Robin

Dick Grayson's history in the show mirrors that in the comics: The episode "Robin's Reckoning" reveals that Grayson and his parents were acrobats in Haly's Circus. Following the tragic deaths of Grayson's mother and father at the hands of mobster Tony Zucco, Bruce Wayne adopts Dick and eventually takes him on as a protégé.

The series also redefined the original Robin/Dick Grayson. While much of Dick's past remains the same, his Robin costume is modernized with short sleeves and long tights, exactly like Tim Drake's original Robin outfit but with a non-italicized "R" symbol. In addition, Dick is given a more serious and mature personality to match the tone of the series (although he does have comedic moments occasionally). The episode "Batgirl Returns" establishes that Dick and Barbara Gordon attend the same college and that they are friends, but neither one knows the secret identity of the other. Their relationship is one of the plot elements of the film Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero.

Barbara Gordon / Batgirl

Barbara Gordon is first seen in the two-parter "Heart of Steel", where she becomes convinced her father is an impostor. She makes her first appearance as her alter ego Batgirl in "Shadow of the Bat", after her father Commissioner Gordon is arrested under charges of corruption. Her Batgirl costume is exactly the same from The Adventures of Batman and the Bronze Age of Comics, sporting the same gray bodysuit, blue cape and cowl and yellow bat-symbol and utility belt, but with blue gloves and boots to mirror that of Batman's costume instead of yellow ones. She makes several appearances throughout the series, and attends the same university as Dick Grayson, though neither of them are aware of each other's crimefighting alter ego. In "Batgirl Returns", Barbara actually makes a cease fire deal with Catwoman, and they work together in solving the case of missing valuable cat statues while Batman is away. All of Barbara's/Batgirl's appearances are in episodes written by Brynne Stephens.

The Joker

Batman's rogues gallery from left to right: Mr. Freeze, Poison Ivy, the Penguin, the Joker, Harley Quinn, the Mad Hatter, the Riddler, Catwoman (with her cat Isis), and Two-Face

Though the Joker's origin is never shown in the series (one of only two villains in the series who never got an origin episode, the other one being The Penguin), some of his past is seen in the feature film Batman: Mask of the Phantasm. In flashbacks, he is shown before his accident but does not speak or is referred to by name. His potential real name, Jack Napier (the same name of Jack Nicholson's version of the character from Tim Burton's 1989 film), is established in the episodes "Dreams in Darkness" when it is spoken by Dr. Bartholomew and in "Joker's Wild" where it is written in a dossier. The use of this origin was due to the show being heavily patterned after the success and influential tone of Tim Burton's film. However, when The New Batman Adventures began, during the era of Joel Schumacher's films, Joker's origin was retained but his identity was retconned as being merely one of many aliases as seen in the episode "Beware the Creeper", meaning his true identity is still unknown. This reflected the efforts of the writers to put the character back in line with his conflicting multiple origins from the comics.

In Mask of the Phantasm, the man who would become the Joker started out as a chauffeur and hitman for mobsters Salvatore Valestra, Buzz Bronski and Chuckie Sol. On two occasions, he saw Bruce Wayne and the two exchanged glances years before they would clash as the Joker and Batman later. It is hinted in the rest of the series, presumably after the Valestra Mob had gone their separate ways, the man struck out on his own and formed a small gang. The man broke into the ACE Chemical Plant that marked the first time he encountered Batman, a fight which ended with him falling off a catwalk and into a drainage vat of chemicals. He was washed out into the bay and discovered the chemicals bleached his skin chalk white, dyed his hair green, stained his lips red, leaving them in a permanent rictus smile, and dyed his suit purple. This new, clown-like appearance snapped his already sadistic mind and drove him to eternal insanity. He reinvented himself as the Joker, Batman's greatest enemy and Gotham City's most dangerous costumed criminal.

While the use of this origin was based on the Jack Nicholson version, Mark Hamill was given the note "Don't do Nicholson" before his audition.[4] During production, Hamill asked the production team (consisting of Timm, Radomski, and Romano) if he could play one of the villains after a small appearance as Ferris Boyle in “Heart of Ice”. Even though Tim Curry had already recorded a few episodes, Hamill was given the part after Curry developed bronchitis and departed the series. Hamill, who found himself to be the biggest fan of the Batman comics among the cast, credited the laughs he had honed on stage in Amadeus with landing him the role.[3] He worked to craft a multifaceted laugh for the Joker that could change to reflect the Joker's current mood, likening it to a musical instrument.[5] When recording his lines with the other actors, Hamill would stand while the other actors would remain seated to invest himself in the role. Hamill's take on the Joker's laugh (and the role in general) is considered to be groundbreaking for the voice-acting industry, and led to Hamill having an enormously successful voice-acting career.[5] Of the many influences for his performance, including Jay Leno and Howard Cosell, Hamill cited Claude Rains' performance in the 1933 film The Invisible Man.[6][7][8]

Other characters

Other antagonists that appeared in the series included classic villains such as Poison Ivy, Catwoman, the Riddler, Two-Face, the Mad Hatter, Ra's al Ghul, Talia al Ghul, Man-Bat, the Penguin, the Scarecrow, Killer Croc, Bane, the Ventriloquist and his dummy Scarface, Hugo Strange and Tony Zucco. Friends and allies of Batman featured in the show not previously mentioned include Alfred Pennyworth, Harvey Bullock, the Gray Ghost (an original character created by the series to portray Bruce Wayne's childhood hero and crimefighting inspiration, voiced by Adam West, the actor who had played Batman in the 1960s Batman series), Lucius Fox, and Leslie Thompkins.

Cast

Protagonists

Voice actor Role
Kevin Conroy Bruce Wayne / Batman
Loren Lester Dick Grayson / Robin
Clive Revill Alfred Pennyworth (first three episodes in production order)
Efrem Zimbalist Jr. Alfred Pennyworth (the rest of the series)
Bob Hastings Commissioner James "Jim" Gordon
Robert Costanzo Detective Harvey Bullock
Melissa Gilbert Barbara Gordon / Batgirl

Supporting protagonists

Voice actor Role
Ingrid Oliu Officer Renee Montoya (season one)
Liane Schirmer Officer Renee Montoya (season two)
Brock Peters Lucius Fox
Mari Devon Summer Gleeson
Diana Muldaur Dr. Leslie Thompkins
Lloyd Bochner Mayor Hamilton Hill
Marilu Henner Veronica Vreeland
William Sanderson Karl Rossum
Bill McKinney Jonah Hex
Julie Brown Zatanna Zatara
Adam West Simon Trent / Gray Ghost

Antagonists

Voice actor Role
Mark Hamill Joker
Richard Moll Harvey Dent / Two-Face
Arleen Sorkin Dr. Harleen Quinzel / Harley Quinn
Paul Williams Oswald Cobblepot / Penguin
Adrienne Barbeau Selina Kyle / Catwoman
John Vernon Rupert Thorne
John Glover Edward Nygma / Riddler
Diane Pershing Dr. Pamela Lillian Isley / Poison Ivy
Henry Polic II Dr. Jonathan Crane / Scarecrow
Roddy McDowall Dr. Jervis Tetch / Mad Hatter
Aron Kincaid Waylon Jones / Killer Croc
Ron Perlman Matthew "Matt" Hagen / Clayface
David Warner Ra's al Ghul
Michael Ansara Dr. Victor Fries / Mr. Freeze
Marc Singer Dr. Robert Kirkland "Kirk" Langstrom / Man-Bat
George Dzundza Arnold Wesker / Ventriloquist and Scarface
Ed Asner Roland Daggett
Jeff Bennett HARDAC
Alan Rachins Temple Fugate / Clock King
Henry Silva Bane
Ray Buktenica Hugo Strange

Supporting antagonists

Voice actor Role
Michael Gross Lloyd Ventrix
Robert Ito Kyodai Ken
Alison LaPlaca Mary Louise Dahl / Baby-Doll
Joseph Maher Dr. Emile Dorian
Kate Mulgrew Red Claw
George Murdock Boss Biggis
Michael Pataki Sewer King
Helen Slater Talia al Ghul
Steve Susskind Maximillian "Maxie" Zeus
Bruce Weitz Lyle Bolton / Lock-Up
Treat Williams Professor Achilles Milo
Michael York Count Werner Vertigo

Episodes

Main article: Batman: The Animated Series episode list

Animation

In order to complete the first season's 65 episodes, Warner Bros. Animation outsourced the series to several different overseas animation houses: Spectrum Animation, Sunrise, Studio Junio and Tokyo Movie Shinsha in Japan, Dong Yang Animation, Koko Enterprises Ltd. and AKOM in South Korea, Jade Animation in Hong Kong, Blue Pencil in Spain and Network of Animation (NOA) in Canada.[9] TMS also animated the first season's opening theme sequence. AKOM was eventually fired due to its inconsistent animation in many episodes such as "Cat Scratch Fever" and "Moon of the Wolf".[10]

The 20 episodes of the second season were animated largely by Dong Yang, with the exception of three done by Studio Junio ("A Bullet for Bullock", "Avatar" and "Baby-Doll") and one done by Jade Animation ("The Terrible Trio").[9]

On the commentary track for "Heart of Ice" on the Batman: The Animated Series, Volume One DVD, producer Bruce Timm stated that Spectrum was responsible for airbrushing Mr. Freeze's helmet in every frame that featured him. Such attention to detail ultimately drove the studio to bankruptcy; most of their staff members are now working for Production I.G.[11]

Adaptations

The show also featured numerous adaptations of various Batman comics stories. The following episodes were adaptations:

  • The episode "Appointment in Crime Alley" is based on "There Is No Hope in Crime Alley" from Detective Comics #457 (March 1976) by writer Denny O'Neil and artist Dick Giordano.
  • "Dreams in Darkness" is loosely based on "Batman: The Last Arkham" from Batman: Shadow of the Bat #1–4 by writer Alan Grant and artist Norm Breyfogle (June–September 1992). This episode adapted the comic book story with the inclusion of the Scarecrow instead of Victor Zsasz and Dr. Bartholomew instead of Jeremiah Arkham.
  • "The Cape and Cowl Conspiracy" was an adaptation of "The Cape and Cowl Death Trap!" from Detective Comics #450 (August 1975), written by Elliot S. Maggin and drawn by artist Walt Simonson.
  • Part 1 of "Robin's Reckoning" takes its cues from "Batman and "Robin the Boy Wonder"" in Detective Comics #38 (April 1940) by writer Bill Finger, artist Bob Kane and illustrator Jerry Robinson.
  • The episode "The Laughing Fish" was based on three Batman comics, blended together; "The Joker's Five-Way Revenge" from Batman No. 251 (September 1973) by Denny O'Neil with art by Neal Adams, followed by "The Laughing Fish" and "Sign of the Joker!" from Detective Comics #475–476 (February–March 1978), both by writer Steve Englehart with art by Marshall Rogers. During a spotlight podcast from Comic-Con 2007, Paul Dini explained that the reason why the episode combined those stories was that the show's creators could not adapt them separately, because their content and thematic elements would not have been cleared by the censors.
  • "The Strange Secret of Bruce Wayne" was based on the comic stories "The Dead Yet Live" and "I Am the Batman!" from Detective Comics #471–472 (August–September 1977) by Steve Englehart.
  • "Moon of the Wolf" is based on the comic story of the same name by writer Len Wein with art by Neal Adams, from Batman No. 255 (April 1974).
  • The episode "Terror in the Sky" is loosely based on "Man-Bat Over Vegas", originally presented in Detective Comics No. 429, by writer and artist Frank Robbins. The setting has been shifted from Las Vegas to Gotham Harbor, and in keeping with the family-friendly rating of the television show, the She-Bat is not a vampire in the adaptation. The final line of the episode, "the nightmare's finally over", is similar to one of the final lines from the original comic, "Now Fran's vampire nightmare is about over".
  • The episode "Almost Got 'Im" appears to be influenced by a four-issue story arc in Batman #291–294 (1977), entitled "Where Were You on the Night Batman Was Killed?". All four stories were written by David Vern Reed and drawn by John Calnan under the direction of Batman editor Julius Schwartz. In each of the four issues, one of Catwoman, the Riddler, and the Joker all recount their claims to have killed Batman. However, the plot for "Almost Got 'Im" is quite different (six stories in the show, and four completely different ones in the comic book), with only the Joker as an overlapping antagonist.
    • Two-Face's strategy in "Almost Got 'Im" (strapping down Batman to a giant coin and flipping the coin in the air) was taken from the comic World's Finest Comics No. 30 (September 1947) by writer Bill Finger and artist Bob Kane. In a backup tale, both Batman and Robin were tied to a giant penny that was catapulted onto spikes by a lesser-known villain, the Penny Plunderer.
  • "Off Balance" is a direct adaptation of "Batman: Into the Den of the Death-Dealers" from Detective Comics #411 (May 1971), written by writer Dennis O'Neil and drawn by artists Bob Brown and Dick Giordano. Famous for the first appearance of the mysterious character Talia.
  • The two-part episode "The Demon's Quest" is a direct adaptation of "Daughter of the Demon" from Batman No. 232 (June 1971) and "The Demon Lives Again" Batman No. 244 (September 1972), written by Dennis O'Neil and drawn by artist Neal Adams. Famous for introducing one of Batman's deadlier foes; Ra's al Ghul, the father of Talia.
  • The episode "Sideshow" is loosely based on "A Vow from the Grave" from Detective Comics No. 410 by writer Dennis O'Neil and artists Bob Brown and Dick Giordano. This episode adapted the comic book story with the inclusion of a separate Killer Croc story.
  • "A Bullet for Bullock" is based on the comic of the same name from Detective Comics No. 651 (October 1992), by writer Chuck Dixon and artist Graham Nolan.
  • The feature film Mask of the Phantasm is also an adaptation. The film's flashbacks were inspired by "Batman: Year One", whereas the character of Andrea Beaumont and the storyline itself were modified from Mike Barr's story "Batman: Year Two", which ran in Detective Comics #575–578 in the late 1980s; the villain in the comics was named the Reaper.[12]

In other media

Sixteen minutes of animated segments in the video game The Adventures of Batman & Robin for the Sega CD are sometimes referred to as a "lost episode" of the series. These segments are intended to be interspersed between gameplay elements of an early-1990s video game and as such, the sound, color and story are not quite of the same quality of the actual television program. And because Sega did not have to follow the censorship rules of the show, the fights are also a little more violent. Many of the shows voice actors reprised their roles for the game, and are thus in the lost episode as well. Similar cutscenes appear throughout the video games Batman: Vengeance and Batman: Rise of Sin Tzu.[13]

Feature films

  • Batman: Mask of the Phantasm (1993) - based on The Animated Series; the film started production as a direct-to-video release, but was ultimately changed into a theatrical release. Although the film was not a financial success upon its initial release, it earned widespread acclaim and has since become a commercial success through its various home video releases.
  • Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero (1998) – a direct-to-video release, which was produced as a tie-in to the 1997 film Batman & Robin. SubZero's release was delayed until the following year.

Comic adaptation and novelization

Video games

Main article: The Adventures of Batman & Robin (video game)

Broadcasting

Critical reception

Music

Main article: Batman: The Animated Series (soundtrack)

Home media releases

Proposed spin-off

See also

Gallery

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References

External Links



v - e - d
DC Comics logo.png
Media
Animated series: Batman: The Animated SeriesSuperman: The Animated SeriesThe New Batman AdventuresThe New Batman/Superman AdventuresBatman BeyondStatic ShockThe Zeta ProjectJustice LeagueJustice League UnlimitedTeen TitansThe BatmanKrypto the SuperdogLegion of Super HeroesBatman: The Brave and the BoldYoung JusticeGreen Lantern: The Animated SeriesDC Nation ShortsTeen Titans Go!Beware the BatmanJustice League: Gods and Monsters ChroniclesVixenJustice League ActionFreedom Fighters: The RayConstantine: City of DemonsDC Super Hero GirlsHarley Quinn

Live-action series: The FlashHuman TargetLois & Clark: The New Adventures of SupermanSmallvilleBirds of PreyHuman TargetConstantinePowerlessArrowGothamThe FlashiZombieSupergirlLegends of TomorrowLuciferPreacherBlack LightningKryptonTitansThe BoysPennyworthDoom PatrolSwamp ThingStargirlWatchmen
Animated films: The Batman vs. DraculaSuperman: Brainiac AttacksTeen Titans: Trouble in TokyoJLA Adventures: Trapped in TimeScooby-Doo! & Batman: The Brave and the BoldBatman NinjaTeen Titans Go! To the MoviesBatman: Mask of the PhantasmBatman & Mr. Freeze: SubZeroThe Batman/Superman Movie: World's FinestBatman Beyond: Return of the JokerBatman: Mystery of the BatwomanBatman and Harley QuinnSuperman: DoomsdayJustice League: The New FrontierBatman: Gotham KnightWonder WomanGreen Lantern: First FlightJustice League: Crisis on Two EarthsBatman: Under the Red HoodAll-Star SupermanGreen Lantern: Emerald KnightsBatman: Year OneJustice League: DoomSuperman vs. The EliteBatman: The Dark Knight ReturnsSuperman: UnboundBatman: Assault on ArkhamJustice League: Gods and MonstersBatman: The Killing JokeBatman: Gotham by GaslightSuperman/Batman: Public EnemiesSuperman/Batman: ApocalypseJustice League: The Flashpoint ParadoxJustice League: WarSon of BatmanJustice League: Throne of AtlantisBatman vs. RobinBatman: Bad BloodJustice League vs. Teen TitansJustice League DarkTeen Titans: The Judas ContractSuicide Squad: Hell to PayThe Death of SupermanReign of the SupermenThe SpectreJonah HexGreen ArrowSuperman/Shazam!: The Return of Black AdamCatwomanBatman: Return of the Caped CrusadersBatman vs. Two-FaceBatman UnlimitedBatman Unlimited: Animal InstinctsBatman Unlimited: Monster MayhemBatman Unlimited: Mechs vs. Mutants
Live-action films: SupermanSuperman II • (The Richard Donner Cut) • Superman IIISupergirlSuperman IV: The Quest for PeaceBatmanBatman ReturnsBatman ForeverBatmanSteelCatwomanConstantineBatman BeginsV for Vendetta (film)Superman ReturnsWatchmenThe LosersJonah HexGreen LanternMan of SteelBatman v Superman: Dawn of JusticeSuicide SquadJustice LeagueAquamanShazam!JokerBirds of Prey
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Video games:
Universes: DC Comics logo.pngDc animated universe logo.pngDCU Movies.jpgDCAMU logo.pngDC Extended Universe logo.pngDC UniverseDC Universe OnlineDC Universe: LegaciesDC Universe Online: Legends • DC Universe Classics • DC Universe (toyline) • Arrowverse

Characters
Heroes: SupermanBatman (Bruce Wayne/Terry McGinnis) • Supergirl (Kara Zor-El/Matrix/Linda Danvers/Cir-El/Power Girl/Ariella Kent) • Robin (Dick Grayson/Jason Todd/Damian Wayne/Tim Drake) • Nightwing (Dick Grayson/Chris Kent) • Green Lantern Corps (Hal Jordan/Alan Scott/Guy Gardner/John Stewart/Kyle Rayner/Jade/Simon Baz/Jessica Cruz) • BatwomanBatgirlHuntressRed RobinRed HoodFlamebirdBatwingBluebirdStarfireStar HuntersCyborgRavenBeast BoyAqualadArgentBumblebeeBushidoGnarrkHeraldKid FlashThe FlashJerichoKoleMás y MenosPanthaRed StarSpeedyThunder and LightningTerraGreen ArrowWonder WomanAquamanBlack CanaryMartian ManhunterHawkwomanHawkgirlWonder Girl • Blue Beetle (Dan Garret/Ted Kord/Jaime Reyes)

Villains: The JokerCatwomanLex LuthorSinestroHarvey Two-FaceThe RiddlerLaurel HedareGeorge HedareThe PenguinBaneClayfaceHarley QuinnKiller CrocMad HatterMan-BatScarecrowMr. FreezePoison IvyVentriloquistRa's al GhulCalendar ManCatmanCluemasterDeadshotDeathstrokeFireflyHugo StrangeHushKiller MothMaxie ZeusTweedledum and TweedledeeVictor ZsaszJinxThe Batman Who LaughsStarroDark Kahn
Other characters:

Weapons/Objects
Vehicles
Skull ShipBatmobileThe BatBatboat
Organizations/Groups
H.I.V.E.Regime Soldiers
Locations


v - e - d
DC Comics logo.png
Media
Animated series: Batman: The Animated SeriesSuperman: The Animated SeriesThe New Batman AdventuresThe New Batman/Superman AdventuresBatman BeyondStatic ShockThe Zeta ProjectJustice LeagueJustice League UnlimitedTeen TitansThe BatmanKrypto the SuperdogLegion of Super HeroesBatman: The Brave and the BoldYoung JusticeGreen Lantern: The Animated SeriesDC Nation ShortsTeen Titans Go!Beware the BatmanJustice League: Gods and Monsters ChroniclesVixenJustice League ActionFreedom Fighters: The RayConstantine: City of DemonsDC Super Hero GirlsHarley Quinn

Live-action series: The FlashHuman TargetLois & Clark: The New Adventures of SupermanSmallvilleBirds of PreyHuman TargetConstantinePowerlessArrowGothamThe FlashiZombieSupergirlLegends of TomorrowLuciferPreacherBlack LightningKryptonTitansThe BoysPennyworthDoom PatrolSwamp ThingStargirlWatchmen
Animated films: The Batman vs. DraculaSuperman: Brainiac AttacksTeen Titans: Trouble in TokyoJLA Adventures: Trapped in TimeScooby-Doo! & Batman: The Brave and the BoldBatman NinjaTeen Titans Go! To the MoviesBatman: Mask of the PhantasmBatman & Mr. Freeze: SubZeroThe Batman/Superman Movie: World's FinestBatman Beyond: Return of the JokerBatman: Mystery of the BatwomanBatman and Harley QuinnSuperman: DoomsdayJustice League: The New FrontierBatman: Gotham KnightWonder WomanGreen Lantern: First FlightJustice League: Crisis on Two EarthsBatman: Under the Red HoodAll-Star SupermanGreen Lantern: Emerald KnightsBatman: Year OneJustice League: DoomSuperman vs. The EliteBatman: The Dark Knight ReturnsSuperman: UnboundBatman: Assault on ArkhamJustice League: Gods and MonstersBatman: The Killing JokeBatman: Gotham by GaslightSuperman/Batman: Public EnemiesSuperman/Batman: ApocalypseJustice League: The Flashpoint ParadoxJustice League: WarSon of BatmanJustice League: Throne of AtlantisBatman vs. RobinBatman: Bad BloodJustice League vs. Teen TitansJustice League DarkTeen Titans: The Judas ContractSuicide Squad: Hell to PayThe Death of SupermanReign of the SupermenThe SpectreJonah HexGreen ArrowSuperman/Shazam!: The Return of Black AdamCatwomanBatman: Return of the Caped CrusadersBatman vs. Two-FaceBatman UnlimitedBatman Unlimited: Animal InstinctsBatman Unlimited: Monster MayhemBatman Unlimited: Mechs vs. Mutants
Live-action films: SupermanSuperman II • (The Richard Donner Cut) • Superman IIISupergirlSuperman IV: The Quest for PeaceBatmanBatman ReturnsBatman ForeverBatmanSteelCatwomanConstantineBatman BeginsV for Vendetta (film)Superman ReturnsWatchmenThe LosersJonah HexGreen LanternMan of SteelBatman v Superman: Dawn of JusticeSuicide SquadJustice LeagueAquamanShazam!JokerBirds of Prey
Serials:
Books:
Comic Books:
Soundtracks:
Video games:
Universes: DC Comics logo.pngDc animated universe logo.pngDCU Movies.jpgDCAMU logo.pngDC Extended Universe logo.pngDC UniverseDC Universe OnlineDC Universe: LegaciesDC Universe Online: Legends • DC Universe Classics • DC Universe (toyline) • Arrowverse

Characters
Heroes: SupermanBatman (Bruce Wayne/Terry McGinnis) • Supergirl (Kara Zor-El/Matrix/Linda Danvers/Cir-El/Power Girl/Ariella Kent) • Robin (Dick Grayson/Jason Todd/Damian Wayne/Tim Drake) • Nightwing (Dick Grayson/Chris Kent) • Green Lantern Corps (Hal Jordan/Alan Scott/Guy Gardner/John Stewart/Kyle Rayner/Jade/Simon Baz/Jessica Cruz) • BatwomanBatgirlHuntressRed RobinRed HoodFlamebirdBatwingBluebirdStarfireStar HuntersCyborgRavenBeast BoyAqualadArgentBumblebeeBushidoGnarrkHeraldKid FlashThe FlashJerichoKoleMás y MenosPanthaRed StarSpeedyThunder and LightningTerraGreen ArrowWonder WomanAquamanBlack CanaryMartian ManhunterHawkwomanHawkgirlWonder Girl • Blue Beetle (Dan Garret/Ted Kord/Jaime Reyes)

Villains: The JokerCatwomanLex LuthorSinestroHarvey Two-FaceThe RiddlerLaurel HedareGeorge HedareThe PenguinBaneClayfaceHarley QuinnKiller CrocMad HatterMan-BatScarecrowMr. FreezePoison IvyVentriloquistRa's al GhulCalendar ManCatmanCluemasterDeadshotDeathstrokeFireflyHugo StrangeHushKiller MothMaxie ZeusTweedledum and TweedledeeVictor ZsaszJinxThe Batman Who LaughsStarroDark Kahn
Other characters:

Weapons/Objects
Vehicles
Skull ShipBatmobileThe BatBatboat
Organizations/Groups
H.I.V.E.Regime Soldiers
Locations


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Media
Animated series: Batman: The Animated SeriesSuperman: The Animated SeriesThe New Batman AdventuresThe New Batman/Superman AdventuresBatman BeyondStatic ShockThe Zeta ProjectJustice LeagueJustice League UnlimitedTeen TitansThe BatmanKrypto the SuperdogLegion of Super HeroesBatman: The Brave and the BoldYoung JusticeGreen Lantern: The Animated SeriesDC Nation ShortsTeen Titans Go!Beware the BatmanJustice League: Gods and Monsters ChroniclesVixenJustice League ActionFreedom Fighters: The RayConstantine: City of DemonsDC Super Hero GirlsHarley Quinn

Live-action series: The FlashHuman TargetLois & Clark: The New Adventures of SupermanSmallvilleBirds of PreyHuman TargetConstantinePowerlessArrowGothamThe FlashiZombieSupergirlLegends of TomorrowLuciferPreacherBlack LightningKryptonTitansThe BoysPennyworthDoom PatrolSwamp ThingStargirlWatchmen
Animated films: The Batman vs. DraculaSuperman: Brainiac AttacksTeen Titans: Trouble in TokyoJLA Adventures: Trapped in TimeScooby-Doo! & Batman: The Brave and the BoldBatman NinjaTeen Titans Go! To the MoviesBatman: Mask of the PhantasmBatman & Mr. Freeze: SubZeroThe Batman/Superman Movie: World's FinestBatman Beyond: Return of the JokerBatman: Mystery of the BatwomanBatman and Harley QuinnSuperman: DoomsdayJustice League: The New FrontierBatman: Gotham KnightWonder WomanGreen Lantern: First FlightJustice League: Crisis on Two EarthsBatman: Under the Red HoodAll-Star SupermanGreen Lantern: Emerald KnightsBatman: Year OneJustice League: DoomSuperman vs. The EliteBatman: The Dark Knight ReturnsSuperman: UnboundBatman: Assault on ArkhamJustice League: Gods and MonstersBatman: The Killing JokeBatman: Gotham by GaslightSuperman/Batman: Public EnemiesSuperman/Batman: ApocalypseJustice League: The Flashpoint ParadoxJustice League: WarSon of BatmanJustice League: Throne of AtlantisBatman vs. RobinBatman: Bad BloodJustice League vs. Teen TitansJustice League DarkTeen Titans: The Judas ContractSuicide Squad: Hell to PayThe Death of SupermanReign of the SupermenThe SpectreJonah HexGreen ArrowSuperman/Shazam!: The Return of Black AdamCatwomanBatman: Return of the Caped CrusadersBatman vs. Two-FaceBatman UnlimitedBatman Unlimited: Animal InstinctsBatman Unlimited: Monster MayhemBatman Unlimited: Mechs vs. Mutants
Live-action films: SupermanSuperman II • (The Richard Donner Cut) • Superman IIISupergirlSuperman IV: The Quest for PeaceBatmanBatman ReturnsBatman ForeverBatmanSteelCatwomanConstantineBatman BeginsV for Vendetta (film)Superman ReturnsWatchmenThe LosersJonah HexGreen LanternMan of SteelBatman v Superman: Dawn of JusticeSuicide SquadJustice LeagueAquamanShazam!JokerBirds of Prey
Serials:
Books:
Comic Books:
Soundtracks:
Video games:
Universes: DC Comics logo.pngDc animated universe logo.pngDCU Movies.jpgDCAMU logo.pngDC Extended Universe logo.pngDC UniverseDC Universe OnlineDC Universe: LegaciesDC Universe Online: Legends • DC Universe Classics • DC Universe (toyline) • Arrowverse

Characters
Heroes: SupermanBatman (Bruce Wayne/Terry McGinnis) • Supergirl (Kara Zor-El/Matrix/Linda Danvers/Cir-El/Power Girl/Ariella Kent) • Robin (Dick Grayson/Jason Todd/Damian Wayne/Tim Drake) • Nightwing (Dick Grayson/Chris Kent) • Green Lantern Corps (Hal Jordan/Alan Scott/Guy Gardner/John Stewart/Kyle Rayner/Jade/Simon Baz/Jessica Cruz) • BatwomanBatgirlHuntressRed RobinRed HoodFlamebirdBatwingBluebirdStarfireStar HuntersCyborgRavenBeast BoyAqualadArgentBumblebeeBushidoGnarrkHeraldKid FlashThe FlashJerichoKoleMás y MenosPanthaRed StarSpeedyThunder and LightningTerraGreen ArrowWonder WomanAquamanBlack CanaryMartian ManhunterHawkwomanHawkgirlWonder Girl • Blue Beetle (Dan Garret/Ted Kord/Jaime Reyes)

Villains: The JokerCatwomanLex LuthorSinestroHarvey Two-FaceThe RiddlerLaurel HedareGeorge HedareThe PenguinBaneClayfaceHarley QuinnKiller CrocMad HatterMan-BatScarecrowMr. FreezePoison IvyVentriloquistRa's al GhulCalendar ManCatmanCluemasterDeadshotDeathstrokeFireflyHugo StrangeHushKiller MothMaxie ZeusTweedledum and TweedledeeVictor ZsaszJinxThe Batman Who LaughsStarroDark Kahn
Other characters:

Weapons/Objects
Vehicles
Skull ShipBatmobileThe BatBatboat
Organizations/Groups
H.I.V.E.Regime Soldiers
Locations


v - e - d
Warner Bros. Animation Logo (Template-only).png
Looney Tunes/Spielberg universe
Animated series: The Bugs Bunny ShowTiny Toon AdventuresTaz-ManiaAnimaniacsThe Sylvester & Tweety MysteriesPinky and the BrainFreakazoid!Road RoversHisteria!Pinky, Elmyra and the BrainThe Cat&Birdy Warneroonie PinkyBrainy Big Cartoonie ShowBaby Looney TunesDuck DodgersLoonatics UnleashedThe Looney Tunes ShowNew Looney Tunes

Films: Bugs Bunny: SuperstarThe Bugs Bunny/Road Runner MovieThe Looney Looney Looney Bugs Bunny MovieBugs Bunny's 3rd Movie: 1001 Rabbit TalesDaffy Duck's Fantastic IslandDaffy Duck's QuackbustersSpace JamWakko's WishTweety's High-Flying AdventureLooney Tunes: Back in ActionBah, Humduck! A Looney Tunes ChristmasLooney Tunes: Rabbits Run

DC Comics
Animated series: Batman: The Animated SeriesSuperman: The Animated SeriesBatman BeyondStatic ShockThe Zeta ProjectJustice LeagueTeen TitansJustice League UnlimitedThe BatmanKrypto the SuperdogLegion of Super HeroesBatman: The Brave and the BoldYoung JusticeGreen Lantern: The Animated SeriesTeen Titans Go!Beware the BatmanDC Super Hero Girls

Animated films: Batman: Mask of the PhantasmBatman & Mr. Freeze: SubZeroThe Lego Batman MovieBatman: Return of the Caped CrusadersBatman vs. Two-Face

Hanna-Barbera
Animated series: What's New, Scooby-Doo?Tom and Jerry TalesShaggy & Scooby-Doo Get a Clue!Scooby-Doo! Mystery IncorporatedThe Tom and Jerry ShowBe Cool, Scooby-Doo!Yabba-Dabba Dinosaurs!

Direct-to-video film series: Scooby-Doo on Zombie IslandScooby-Doo! and the Witch's GhostTom and Jerry: The Magic RingTom and Jerry: Blast Off to MarsThe Flintstones & WWE: Stone Age SmackDown!The Jetsons & WWE: Robo-WrestleMania!

Other TV series
Detention¡Mucha Lucha!Xiaolin ShowdownCoconut Fred's Fruit Salad IslandBaby BluesRight Now KapowDorothy and the Wizard of OzBunniculaGreen Eggs and HamUnikitty!WayneheadOzzy & DrixMike Tyson Mysteries3 SouthMadJohnny TestFirehouse TalesThunderCatsThunderCats Roar
Other original films
Theatrical: Quest for CamelotThe Iron GiantOsmosis JonesThe Lego MovieStorksThe Lego Ninjago Movie

Direct-to-video: Kangaroo Jack: G'Day U.S.A.!¡Mucha Lucha!: The Return of El MaléficoHappiness Is a Warm Blanket, Charlie Brown

Films, distribution only
Gay Purr-eeThe Incredible Mr. LimpetTreasure IslandOliver TwistThe Nutcracker PrinceRover DangerfieldThumbelinaA Troll in Central ParkThe Pebble and the PenguinCats Don't DanceThe Fearless FourThe King and IThe Scarecrow


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1950s
1960s
1970s
1980s
1990s
2000s
2010s and beyond


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Theatrical films
The Magic Voyage (UK distribution) | Dennis the Menace | Free Willy | Tom and Jerry: The Movie (home video distribution) | George Balanchine's The Nutcracker | Batman: Mask of the Phantasm | Thumbelina | Black Beauty | A Troll in Central Park | Little Giants | The NeverEnding Story III | Richie Rich | Born to Be Wild | The Pebble and the Penguin (international) | A Little Princess | Free Willy 2: The Adventure Home | The Amazing Panda Adventure | It Takes Two | Gumby: The Movie (German distribution) | The Adventures of Pinocchio (German distribution) | Space Jam | Shiloh | Cats Don't Dance | A Rat's Tale | The Fearless Four | Air Bud (UK distribution) | Wild America | The Swan Princess II: Escape from Castle Mountain (home video distribution) | Free Willy 3: The Rescue | Pippi Longstocking (home video distribution) | Quest for Camelot | Little Men | The King and I | The Iron Giant | Shiloh 2: Shiloh Season | Pokémon: The First Movie | My Dog Skip | Pokémon: The Movie 2000 | The Scarecrow | Pokémon 3: The Movie | Cats & Dogs | Osmosis Jones | The Little Polar Bear | Scooby-Doo | The Powerpuff Girls Movie | Kangaroo Jack | Looney Tunes: Back in Action | Scooby-Doo 2: Monsters Unleashed | Clifford's Really Big Movie | Yu-Gi-Oh! The Movie: Pyramid of Light | Laura's Star | The Polar Express | Racing Stripes | Charlie and the Chocolate Factory | Corpse Bride | The Little Polar Bear 2 – The Mysterious Island | The Thief Lord | Saving Shiloh | The Ant Bully | Happy Feet | TMNT | Speed Racer | Star Wars: The Clone Wars | Shorts: The Adventures of the Wishing Rock | Laura's Star and the Mysterious Dragon Nian | Cats & Dogs: The Revenge of Kitty Galore | Legend of the Guardians: The Owls of Ga'Hoole | Yogi Bear | Top Cat: The Movie | Dolphin Tale | Happy Feet Two | Laura's Star and the Dream Monsters | The Lego Movie | Dolphin Tale 2 | Max | Storks | The Lego Batman Movie
Direct-to-video films
Live-Action films: Dennis the Menace Strikes Again | Addams Family Reunion | Richie Rich's Christmas Wish | Ace Ventura Jr.: Pet Detective | Scooby-Doo! The Mystery Begins | Scooby-Doo! Curse of the Lake Monster | Free Willy: Escape from Pirate's Cove

Scooby-Doo films: Scooby-Doo on Zombie Island | Scooby-Doo! and the Witch's Ghost | Scooby-Doo and the Alien Invaders | Scooby-Doo and the Cyber Chase | Scooby-Doo! and the Legend of the Vampire | Scooby-Doo! and the Monster of Mexico | Scooby-Doo! and the Loch Ness Monster | Aloha, Scooby-Doo! | Scooby-Doo! in Where's My Mummy? | Scooby-Doo! Pirates Ahoy! | Chill Out, Scooby-Doo! | Scooby-Doo! Legend of the Phantosaur | Scooby-Doo! WrestleMania Mystery
Looney Tunes films: Tiny Toon Adventures: How I Spent My Vacation | Tweety's High-Flying Adventure | Bah, Humduck! A Looney Tunes Christmas | Looney Tunes: Rabbits Run
Other films: The Snow Queen | The Snow Queen's Revenge | The Mighty Kong | Batman & Mr. Freeze: SubZero | Wakko's Wish | Dexter's Laboratory: Ego Trip | Millionaire Dogs | The Scarecrow | Batman Beyond: Return of the Joker | Pokémon: Mewtwo Returns | The Little Polar Bear: Lars and the Little Tiger | The Little Polar Bear: The Dream of Flying | The Little Polar Bear: Nanouk's Rescue | Batman: Mystery of the Batwoman | ¡Mucha Lucha!: The Return of El Maléfico | The Little Polar Bear: A Visitor from the South Pole | Nine Dog Christmas | Kangaroo Jack: G'Day U.S.A.! | Laura's Christmas Star

Notable television shows
Tiny Toon Adventures | Taz-Mania | Batman: The Animated Series | The Plucky Duck Show | The Little Polar Bear | Animaniacs | Free Willy | Freakazoid! | Pinky and the Brain |

The Sylvester and Tweety Mysteries | Road Rovers | Superman: The Animated Series | Waynehead | The Legend of Calamity Jane | The New Batman Adventures | The New Batman/Superman Adventures | Histeria! | Pinky, Elmyra & the Brain | Batman Beyond | Detention | Static Shock | Justice League | The Zeta Project | Baby Looney Tunes | Laura's Star | ¡Mucha Lucha! | Ozzy & Drix | What's New, Scooby-Doo? | The Little Polar Bear | Duck Dodgers | Teen Titans | Xiaolin Showdown | The Batman | Justice League Unlimited | Coconut Fred's Fruit Salad Island | Johnny Test | Firehouse Tales | Krypto the Superdog | Loonatics Unleashed | Legion of Super Heroes | Shaggy & Scooby-Doo Get a Clue! | Tom and Jerry Tales

  1. Fact Behind Fiction Archived June 28, 2016, at the Wayback Machine, Bruce Wayne biography.
  2. Murphy, Joel (October 1, 2009). "One on One with Kevin Conroy". HoboTrashcan.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Burton, Byron and Couch, Aaron (September 5, 2017). "'Batman' at 25: Hirings, Firings and Other Last-Minute Changes Behind the Animated Classic". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 17, 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  4. Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Batman The Animated Series | The Heart of Batman Documentary Livestream | Warner Bros. Entertainment".
  5. 5.0 5.1 [Batman: The Animated Series: The Legacy Continues, Voices of the Knight, Arkham's Files The Joker]
  6. "Many, many influences, but it started with the brilliant Claude Rains as The Invisible Man-always a favorite of mine" (en). Twitter.
  7. Grossberg, Josh (March 29, 2018). "Mark Hamill channeled the Invisible Man and Jay Leno as inspiration for The Joker". SYFY WIRE.
  8. Foster, Tom (March 30, 2018). "Mark Hamill Reveals Inspirations Behind His Portrayal Of The Joker". TVOvermind.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Batman: The Animated Series – Filmography Archived November 5, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  10. Kindred, Christopher (June 1993). "Batman: The Animated Series – Cat Scratch Fever". Animato!. Ventrella. Retrieved February 4, 2018.<templatestyles src="Module:Citation/CS1/styles.css"></templatestyles>
  11. "Spectrum Animation (Creator) – TV Tropes". TV Tropes (October 25, 2012).
  12. HBO. "HBO First Look: Batman Mask of the Phantasm." HBO (c. 1993). Part 1, Part 2.
  13. "Batman: The Lost "Episode"". Toonamiarsenal.com.
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